### Featured

October 22, 2020

In my last post I touched on the topic of continuously improving your geo-computing projects (also take a look at my chapter from the upcoming Software Underground book, 52 things you should know about geocomputing).

However, one aspect that I intentionally left out in was that of coding skills as I was planning to get back to it with a dedicated post, which you are reading just now.

#### 2018 vs 2020 comparison of flag percentage calculation

In the Jupyter notebook I compare the results of seismic inversion from two methods (with or without inversion-tailored noise attenuation) using a custom function to flag poor prediction of the target well log using median/median absolute deviation as a statistic for the error; the results are shown below.

One may just do this visual comparison, but I also included calculations to count the number and percentage of samples that have been flagged for each case. Below is a cell of code from the Jupyter notebook (let’s call it 2020 code) that does just that .

``zone_errors_a['flagged samples']=result_a.groupby('zone', sort=False).flag.sum().valueszone_errors_b['flagged samples']=result_b.groupby('zone', sort=False).flag.sum().valuesdef calc_proportion(dtf):    """    function to calculate proportion of flagged samples    """    x=dtf.flag    return round(100 * x.sum()/len(x), 1)zone_errors_a['proportion (%)']=result_a.groupby('zone',sort=False).apply(calc_proportion).valueszone_errors_b['proportion (%)']=result_b.groupby('zone',sort=False).apply(calc_proportion).values``

I am a lot happier with this code than with the original code (circa 2018), which is in the cell below.

``````zones_a=list(result_a['zone'].unique())
zones_b=list(result_b['zone'].unique())

zone_errors_a['flagged samples']=[result_a.loc[result_a.zone==z,'flag'].sum() for z in zones_a]
zone_errors_b['flagged samples']=[result_b.loc[result_b.zone==z,'flag'].sum() for z in zones_b]

zone_errors_a['proportion (%)']=[round(result_a.loc[result_a.zone==z,  'flag'].sum()/len(result_a.loc[result_a.zone==z,'flag'])*100,1) for z in zones_a]

zone_errors_b['proportion (%)']=[round(result_b.loc[result_b.zone==z,  'flag'].sum()/len(result_b.loc[result_b.zone==z,'flag'])*100,1) for z in zones_b]                                    ``````

The major differences in the older code are:

• I was using `unique` instead of Pandas’ `groupby`
• I was using list comprehensions to work through the DataFrame, instead of Pandas’ `apply` and a custom function to calculate the percentages on the entire DataFrame at once.

I find the 2020 code much more tidy and easier to read.

#### Enters Pandas for everyone

The above changes happened in but a few hours over two evenings, after having worked through chapters 9 and 10 of Pandas for Everyone by Daniel Chen, a very accessible read for all aspiring data scientists, which I highly recommend (also, watch Daniel’s fully-packed 2019 Pycon tutorial).

And before you ask: no, you do not get the Agile Scientific sticker with the book, I am sorry.

🙂

#### Comparison of 2016 vs 2020 code snippets from the 2016 SEG Machine Learning contest

A second example is of code used to calculate the first and second derivatives for all geophysical logs from the wells in the 2016 SEG Machine Learning contest.

The two cells of code below do exactly the same thing: loop through the wells and for each one in turn loop through the logs, calculate the derivatives, add them to a temporary Pandas DataFrame, then concatenate into a single output DataFrame. In this case, the only difference is the moving away from `unique` to `groupby`.

I use the `%%timeit` cell magic to compare the runtimes for the two cells.

###### 2016 code
``````%%timeit
# for training data
# calculate all 1st and 2nd derivative for all logs, for all wells
train_deriv_df = pd.DataFrame()             # final dataframe

for well in train_data['Well Name'].unique():        # for each well
new_df = pd.DataFrame() # make a new temporary dataframe

for log in ['GR', 'ILD_log10', 'DeltaPHI', 'PHIND' ,'PE']: # for each log
# calculate and write to temporary dataframe
new_df[str(log) + '_d1'] = np.array(np.gradient(train_feat_df[log][train_feat_df['Well Name'] == well]))

# append all rows of temporary dataframe to final dataframe
train_deriv_df = pd.concat([train_deriv_df, new_df])

86 ms ± 1.47 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10 loops each)``````
###### 2020 code
``````%%timeit
# for training data
# calculate all 1st and 2nd derivative for all logs, for all wells
train_deriv_df = pd.DataFrame() # final dataframe

for _, data in train_feat_df.groupby('Well Name'): # for each well
new_df = pd.DataFrame()                        # make a new temporary dataframe

for log in ['GR', 'ILD_log10', 'DeltaPHI', 'PHIND' ,'PE']: # for each log
# calculate and write to temporary dataframe

# append all rows of temporary dataframe to final dataframe
train_deriv_df = pd.concat([train_deriv_df, new_df])

52.3 ms ± 353 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10 loops each)``````

We go down to 52.3 ms from 86 ms, which is a modest improvement, but certainly the code is more compact and a whole lot lighter to read (i.e. more pythonic, or pandaish if you prefer): I am happy!

As an aside, if you want to know more about timing code execution, see section 1.07 from Jake VanderPlas’ outstanding Python Data Science Handbook, which I also cannot recommend enough (and do yourself a favor: watch his series Reproducible Data Analysis in Jupyter).

By the way, below I show the notebook code comparison generated using the nbdiff-web option from the awesome `nbdime` library, a recent discovery.

# Geoscience Machine Learning bits and bobs – data completeness

#### 2016 Machine learning contest – Society of Exploration Geophysicists

In a previous post I showed how to use `pandas.isnull` to find out, for each well individually, if a column has any null values, and `sum` to get how many, for each column. Here is one of the examples (with more modern, pandaish syntax compared to the example in the previous post:

```for well, data in training_data.groupby('Well Name'):
print(well)
print (data.isnull().values.any())
print (data.isnull().sum(), '\n')
```

Simple and quick, the output showed met that  – for example – the well ALEXANDER D is missing 466 samples from the PE log:

```ALEXANDER D
True
Facies         0
Formation      0
Well Name      0
Depth          0
GR             0
ILD_log10      0
DeltaPHI       0
PHIND          0
PE           466
NM_M           0
RELPOS         0
dtype: int64```

A more appealing and versatile alternative, which I discovered after the contest, comes with the `matrix` function form the missingno library. With the code below I can turn each well into a Pandas DataFrame on the fly, then a missingno matrix plot.

```for well, data in training_data.groupby('Well Name'):

msno.matrix(data, color=(0., 0., 0.45))
fig = plt.gcf()
fig.set_size_inches(20, np.round(len(data)/100)) # heigth of the plot for each well reflects well length
axes=fig.get_axes()
axes[0].set_title(well, color=(0., 0.8, 0.), fontsize=14, ha='center')```

I find that looking at these two plots provides a very compelling and informative way to inspect data completeness, and I am wondering if they couldn’t be used to guide the strategy to deal with missing data, together with domain knowledge from petrophysics.

Interpreting the dendrogram in a top-down fashion, as suggested in the library documentation, my first thoughts are that this may suggest trying to predict missing values in a sequential fashion rather than for all logs at once. For example, looking at the largest cluster on the left, and starting from top right, I am thinking of testing use of GR to first predict missing values in RDEP, then both to predict missing values in RMED, then DTC. Then add CALI and use all logs completed so far to predict RHOB, and so on.

Naturally, this strategy will need to be tested against alternative strategies using lithology prediction accuracy. I would do that in the context of learning curves: I am imagining comparing the training and crossvalidation error first using only non NaN rows, then replace all NANs with mean, then compare separately this sequential log completing strategy with an all-in one strategy.

# Busting bad colormaps with Python and Panel

I have not done much work with, or written here on the blog about colormaps and perception in quite some time.

Last spring, however, I decided to build a web-based app to show the effects of using a bad colormaps. This stemmed from two needs: first, to further my understanding of Panel, after working through the awesome tutorial by James Bednar, Panel: Dashboards (at PyData Austin 2019); and second, to enable people to explore interactively the effects of bad colormaps on their perception, and consequently the ability to on interpret faults on a 3D seismic horizon.

I introduced the app at the Transform 2020 virtual subsurface conference, organized by Software Underground last June. Please watch the recording of my lightning talk as it explains in detail the machinery behind it.

I am writing this post in part to discuss some changes to the app. Here’s how it looks right now:

The most notable change is the switch from one drop-down selector to two-drop-down selectors, in order to support both the Matplotlib collection and the Colorcet collection of colormaps. Additionally, the app has since been featured in the resource list on the Awesome Panel site, an achievement I am really proud of.

You can try the app yourself by either running the notebook interactively with Binder, by clicking on the button below:

```https://mybinder.org/v2/gh/mycarta/Colormap-distorsions-Panel-app/master?urlpath=%2Fpanel%2FDemonstrate_colormap_distortions_interactive_Panel
```

Let’s look at a couple of examples of insights I gained from using the app. For those that jumped straight to this example, the top row shows:

• the horizon, plotted using the benchmark grayscale colormap, on the left
• the horizon intensity, derived using `skimage.color.rgb2gray`, in the middle
• the Sobel edges detected on the intensity, on the right

and the bottom row,  shows:

• the horizon, plotted using the Matplotlib `gist_rainbow` colormap, on the left
• the intensity of the colormapped, in the middle. This is possible thanks to a function that makes a figure (but does not display it), plots the horizon with the specified colormap, then saves plot in the canvas to an RGB numpy array
• the Sobel edges detected on the colormapped intensity, on the right

I think the effects of this colormaps are already apparent when comparing the bottom left plot to the top left plot. However, simulating perception can be quite revealing for those that have not considered these effects before. The intensity in the bottom middle plot is very washed out in the areas corresponding to green color in the bottom left, and as a result, many of the faults are not visible any more, or only with much difficulty, which is demonstrated by the Sobel edges in the bottom right.

And if you are not quite convinced yet, I have created these hill-shaded maps, using Matt Hall”s delightful function from this notebook (and check his blog post):

Below is another example, using the Colocrcet `cet_rainbow` which is is one of Peter Kovesi’s perceptually uniform colormaps.  I use many of Peter’s colormaps, but never used this one, because I use my own perceptual rainbow, which does not have  a fully saturated yellow, or a fully saturated red. I think the app demonstrate, that even though they are more subtle , this rainbow still is introducing some artifacts. The yellow colour creates narrow flat bands, visible in the intensity and Sobel plots, and indicated by yellow arrows; the red colour is also bad as usual, causing an artificial decrease in intensity(magenta arrows).

## Be a geoscience and data science detective

### Featured

September 16, 2020

#### Introduction

These days everyone talks about data science. But here’s a question: if you are a geoscientist, and like me you have some interest in data science (that is, doing more quantitative and statistical analyses with data), why choose between the two? Do both… always! Your domain knowledge is an indispensable condition, and so is an attitude of active curiosity (for me, an even more important condition). So, my advice for aspiring geoscientists and data scientists is: “yes, do some course work, read some articles, maybe a book, get the basics of Python or R, if you do not know a programming language” but then jump right ahead into doing! But – please! – skip the Titanic, Iris, Cars datasets, or any other data from your MOOC or that many have already looked at! Get some data that is interesting to you as geoscientist, or put it together yourself.

#### First example: evaluate the quality of seismic inversion from a published article

In this first example, the one presented at Transform 2020, I wanted to evaluate the quality of seismic inversion from a published article in the November 2009 CSEG Recorder Inversion Driven Processing. In the article, the evaluation was done by the authors at a blind well location, but only qualitatively, as illustrated in Figure 5, shown below for reference. In the top panel (a) the evaluation is for the inversion without additional processing (SPNA, Signal Protected Noise Attenuation); in the bottom panel (b) the evaluation is for the inversion with SPNA. On the right side of each panel the inverted seismic trace is plotted against the upscaled impedance well log (calculated by multiplying the well density log and the well velocity log from compressional sonic); on the right, the upscaled impedance log is inserted in a seismic impedance section as a colored trace (at the location of the well) using the same color scale and range used for the impedance section.

Figure 5 caption: Acoustic impedance results at the blind well for data without (a) and with (b) SPNA. The figure shows a 200 ms window of inverted seismic data with well B, the blind well, in the middle on the left, along with acoustic impedance curves for the well (red) and inverted seismic (blue) on the right. The data with SPNA shows a better fit to the well, particularly over the low frequencies.

What the authors reported in the figure caption is the extent to which the evaluation was discussed in the paper; unfortunately it is not backed up in any quantitative way, for example comparing a score, such as R^2, for the two methods. Please notice that I am not picking on this paper in particular, which in fact I rather quite liked, but I am critical of the lack of supporting statistics, and wanted to supplement the paper with my own.

In order to do that, I hand-digitized from the figure above the logs and inversion traces , then interpolated to regularly-sampled time intervals (by the way: if you are interested in a free tool to  digitize plots, check  use WebPlotDigitizer).

My plan was to split my evaluation in an upper and lower zone, but rather than using the seismically-picked horizon, I decided to add a fake top at 1.715 seconds, where I see a sharp increase in impedance in Figure 5. This was an arbitrary choice on my part of a more geological horizon, separating the yellow-red band from the green blue band in the impedance sections. The figure below shows all the data in a Matplotlib figure:

The first thing I did then, was to look at the Root Mean Square Error in the upper and lower zone obtained using the fake top. They are summarized in the table below:

Based on the RMSE , it looks like case b, the inversion with Signal Protected Noise Attenuated applied on the data, is a better result for the `Upper` zone, but not for the `Lower` one. This result is in agreement with my visual comparison of the two methods.

But lets’ dig a bit deeper. After looking at RMSE, I used the updated version of the `error_flag` function, which I first wrote at the 2018 Geophysics Sprint, listed below:

```def error_flag(pred, actual, stat, dev = 1.0, method = 1):
"""Calculate the difference between a predicted and an actual curve
and return a curve flagging large differences based on a user-defined distance
(in deviation units) from either the mean difference or the median difference

Matteo Niccoli, October 2018. Updated in May 2020.

Parameters:
predicted : array
predicted log array
actual : array
original log array
stat : {‘mean’, ‘median’}
The statistics to use. The following options are available:
- mean: uses numpy.mean for the statistic,
and np.std for dev calculation
- median: uses numpy.median for the statistic,
and scipy.stats.median_absolute_deviation (MAD) for dev calculation
dev : float, optional
the standard deviations to use. The default is 1.0
method : int {1, 2, 3}, optional
The error method to use. The following options are available
(default is 1):
1: difference between curves larger than mean difference plus dev
2: curve slopes have opposite sign (after a 3-sample window smoothing)
3: curve slopes of opposite sign OR difference larger than mean plus dev
Returns:
flag : array
The error flag array
"""

flag = np.zeros(len(pred))
err = np.abs(pred-actual)

if stat == 'mean':
err_stat = np.mean(err)
err_dev = np.std(err)
elif stat == 'median':
err_stat = np.median(err)
err_dev = sp.stats.median_absolute_deviation(err)

pred_sm = pd.Series(np.convolve(pred, np.ones(3), 'same'))
actual_sm = pd.Series(np.convolve(actual, np.ones(3), 'same'))
ss = np.sign(pred_sm.diff().fillna(pred_sm))
ls = np.sign(actual_sm.diff().fillna(actual_sm))

if method == 1:
flag[np.where(err>(err_stat + (dev*err_dev)))] = 1
elif method == 2:
flag[np.where((ss + ls)==0 )]= 1
elif method == 3:
flag[np.where(np.logical_or(err>(err_stat + (dev*err_dev)), (ss+ls)==0 ))]= 1
return flag```

I believe this new version is greatly improved because:

• Users now can choose between mean/standard deviation and median/median absolute deviation as a statistic for the error. The latter is more robust in the presence of outliers
• I added a convolutional smoother prior to the slope calculation, so as to make it less sensitive to noisy samples
• I expanded and improved the doctstring

The figure below uses the flag returned by the function to highlight areas of poorer inversion results, which I assigned based on passed to the function very restrictive parameters:

• using median and a median absolute deviation of 0.5 to trigger flag
• combining the above with checking for the slope sign

I also wrote short routines to count the number and percentage of samples that have been flagged, for each result, which are summarized in the table below:

The error flag method is in agreement with the RMS result: case b, the inversion on Signal Protected Noise Attenuated data is a better result for the `Upper` zone, but for the `Lower` zone the inversion without SPNA is the better one. Very cool!

But I was not satisfied yet. I was inspired to probe even deeper after a number of conversations with my friend Thomas Speidel, and reading the chapter on Estimation from Computational and Inferential Thinking (UC Berkeley). Specifically, I was left with the question in mind: “Can we be confident about those two is better in the same way?

This question can be answered with a bootstrapped Confidence Interval for the proportions of flagged samples, which I do below using the code in the book, with some modifications and some other tools from the datascience library. The results are shown below. The two plots, one for the `Upper` and one for the `Lower` zone, show the distribution of bootstrap flagged proportions for the two inversion results, with SPNA in yellow, and without SPNA in blue, respectively, and the Confidence Intervals in cyan and brown, respectively (the CI upper and lower bounds are also added to the table, for convenience).

By comparing the amount (or paucity) of overlap between the distributions (and between the confidence intervals) in the two plots, I believe I can be more confident in the conclusion drawn for the Lower zone, which is that the inversion on data without SPNA is better (less proportion of flagged errors), as there is far less overlap.

I am very pleased with these results. Of course, there are some caveats to keep in mind, mainly that:
• I may have introduced small, but perhaps significant errors with hand digitizing
• I chose a statistical measure (the median and median absolute deviation) over a number of possible ones
• I chose an arbitrary geologic reference horizon without a better understanding of the reservoir and the data, just the knowledge from the figure in the paper

However, I am satisfied with this work, because it points to a methodology that I can use in the future. And I am happy to share it! The Jupyter notebook is available on GitHub.

#### Second example: evaluate regression results from a published article

My second, more recent example, is shorter but no less interesting, in my opinion. It is a case study correlating inversion data to petrophysical estimates of porosity-height in the Doig and Montney Formations in Western Canada (from the paper Tight gas geophysics: AVO inversion for reservoir characterization, Close et al. CSEG Recorder, May 2010, an article which I enjoyed very much reading).

The authors indicated that Vp/Vs and/or Poisson’s ratio maps from seismic inversion are good indicators of porosity in the Lower Doig and Upper Montney reservoirs in the wells used in their study, so it was reasonable to try to predict Phi-H from Vp/Vs via regression. The figure below, from the article, shows one such Vp/Vs ratio map and the Vp/Vs vs. Phi-H cross-plot for 8 wells.

Figure 7 caption: Figure 7. a) Map of median Vp/Vs ratio value and porosity-height from 8 wells through the Lower Doig and Upper Montney. The red arrows highlight wells with very small porosity-height values and correspond in general to areas of higher Vp/Vs ratio. The blue arrow highlights a well at the edge of the seismic data where the inversion is adversely affected by decreased fold. The yellow line is the approximate location of a horizontal well where micro-seismic data were recorded during stimulation. b) Cross-plot of porosity-height values as shown in (a) against Vp/Vs extracted from the map. The correlation co-efficient of all data points (blue line) of 0.7 is improved to 0.9 (red line) by removing the data point marked by the blue arrow which again corresponds to the well near the edge of the survey (a).

They also show in the figure that by removing one of the data points, corresponding to a well near the edge of the survey (where the seismic inversion result is presumably not as reliable, due to lower offset and azimuth coverage), the correlation co-efficient is improved from 0.7 to 0.9 (red line).

So, the first thing I set out to do was to reproduce the crossplot.  I again hand-digitized the porosity-height and Vp/Vs pairs in the cross-plot using again WebPlotDigitizer. However, switched around the axes, which seems more natural to me since the objectives of regression efforts would be to predict as the dependent variable Phi-h, at the location of yet to drill wells, given Vp/Vs from seismic inversion. I also labelled the wells using their row index, after having loaded them in a Pandas DataFrame. And I used Ordinary Least Square Regression from the `statsmodels` library twice: once with all data points, the second time after removal of the well labelled as 5 in my plot above.

So, I am able to reproduced the analysis from the figure. I think removing an outlier with insight from domain knowledge (the observation that poorer inversion result at this location is reasonable for the deviation from trend) is a legitimate choice. However, I would like to dig a bit deeper, to back up the decision with other analyses and tests, and to show how one might do it with their own data.

The first thing to look at is an Influence plot, which is a plot of the residuals, scaled by their standard deviation, against the leverage, for each observation. Influence plots are useful to distinguish between high leverage observations from outliers and are one of `statsmodel` ‘s standard Regression plots, so we get the next figure almost for free, with minor modifications to the default example). Here it is below, together with the OLS regression result, with all data points.

From the Influence plot it is very obvious that the point labelled as zero has high leverage (but not high normalized residual). This is not a concern because points with high leverage are important but do not alter much the regression model. On the other hand, the point labelled as 5 has very high normalized residual. This point is an outlier and it will influence the regression line, reducing the R^2 and correlation coefficient. This analysis is a robust way to legitimize removing that data point.

Next I run some inferential tests. As I’ve written in an earlier notebook on Data loading, visualization, significance testing, I find the critical r very useful in the context of bivariate analysis. The critical r is the value of the correlation coefficient at which you can rule out chance as an explanation for the relationship between variables observed in the sample, and I look at it in combination with the confidence interval of the correlation coefficient.

The two plots below display, in dark blue and light blue respectively, the upper and lower confidence interval bounds, as the correlation coefficient r varies between 0 and 1 (x axis). These two bounds will change with different number of wells (they will get closer with more wells, and farther apart with less wells). The lower bound intersects the x axis (y=0) axis at a value equal to the critical r (white dot). The green dots highlight the actual confidence interval for a specific correlation coefficient chosen, in this case 0.73 with 9 wells, and 0.9 with 8 wells.

By the way: these plots are screen captures from the interactive tool I built taking advantage of the Jupyter interactive functionality (`ipywidgets`). You can try the tool by running the Jupyter notebook.

With 9 wells, and cc=0.73, the resulting critical r = 0.67 tells us that for a 95% confidence level (0.05 alpha) we need at least a correlation coefficient of 0.67 in the sample (the 9 wells drilled) to be able to confidently say that there is correlation in the population (e.g. any well, future wells). However, the confidence interval is quite broad, ranging between 0.13 and 0.94 (you can get these numbers by running `confInt(0.73, 9)` in a cell.

With 8 wells (having removed the outlier), CC=0.9, the critical r is now 0.71, meaning that the requirement for rejecting the the null hypothesis (there is no association between Vp/Vs and Phi-H) is now a bit higher. However, a CC increased to 0.9, and only one less well, also results in a confidence interval ranging from 0.53 to 0.98, hence our confidence is greatly increased.

This second analysis also corroborates the choice of removing the outlier data point. One thing worth mentioning before moving on to the next test is that these confidence interval bounds are the expected population ones, based on the sample correlation coefficient and the number of observations; the data itself was not used. Of course, I could also have calculated, and shown you, the OLS regression confidence intervals, as I have done in this notebook (with a different dataset).

My final test involved using the distance correlation (`dcor.distance_correlation`) and p-value (`dcor.independence.distance_covariance_test`) from the `dcor` library. I have written before in a blog post how much I like the distance correlation, because it does not assume a linear relationship between variables, and because a distance correlation of zero does mean that there is no dependence between those two variables (contrary to Pearson and Spearman). In this case the relationship seems to be linear, but it is still a valuable test to compare DC and p-value before and after removing the outlier. Below is a summary of the test:
```All data points:
D.C. =  0.745
p-value =  0.03939
```
```Data without outlier:
D.C. =  0.917
p-value =  0.0012
```

The distance correlation values are very similar to the correlation coefficients from OLS, again going up once removed the outlier. But, more interestingly, with all data points, a p-value of 0.04079 is very close to the alpha of 0.05, whereas once we removed the outlier, the p-value goes down by a factor of 20, to 0.0018. This again backs up the decision to remove the outlier data point.

# Upcoming book: 52 things you should know about Geocomputing

I am very excited to write that, after a successful second attempt at collecting enough essays, the book 52 Things You Should Know About Geocomputing, by Agile Libre, is very likely to become a reality.

#### *** July 2020 UPDATE ***

This project got a much needed boost during the hackathon at the 2020 Transform virtual event. Watch the video recording on the group YouTube channel here.

#### *********************

In one of the three chapter I submitted for this book, Prototype colourmaps for fault interpretation, I talk about building a widget for interactive generation of grayscale colourmaps with sigmoid lightness. The whole process is well described in the chapter and showcased in the accompanying GitHub repo.

This post is an opportunity for me to reflect on how revisiting old projects is very important. Indeed, I consider it an essential part of how I approach scientific computing, and a practical way to incorporate new insights, and changes (hopefully betterments) in your coding abilities.

In the fist version of the Jupyter notebook, submitted in 2017, all the calculations and all the plotting commands where packed inside a single monster function that was passed to `ipywidgets.interact`. Quite frankly, as time passed this approach seemed less and less Phytonic (aka mature) and no longer representative of my programming skills and style, and increased understanding of widget objects.

After a significant hiatus (2 years) I restructured the whole project in several ways:
– Converted Python 2 code to Python 3
– Created separate helper functions for each calculation and moved them to the top to improve on both clarity and reusability of the code.
– Improved and standardized function docstrings
– Optimized and reduced the number of parameters
– Switched from `interact` to `interactive` to enable access to the colormaparray in later cells (for printing, further plotting, and exporting).

The new notebook is here.

In a different chapter in the book I talk at more length about the need to Keep on improving your geocomputing projects.

.

## From zero to JupyterLab pro on Windows 10

### Featured

N.B. last tested successfully onSepotember 27th, 2022.

I love JupyterLab, I really do! In my experience to date it proved to be the best environment for prototyping scientific computing applications interactively using Jupyter notebooks.

If you wonder if this is the right tool for you, please browse the rich documentation on the JupyterLab Interface and on how to work with Notebooks, then make sure to watch the 2018 Scipy tutorial. I guarantee that if you’ve been working with Jupyter notebooks and liked them, you will easily switch to JupyterLab and will never look back, it is only natural (also check Terraforming Jupyter to get a flavor of how much you can customize this environment to suit your needs).

Three times in the last couple of months I’ve had to make an installation from scratch on Windows 10 operated computers, using the Anaconda Python distribution: for a coworker’s desktop computer and my own, and for a friend on a laptop.

I’ve decided to summarize in this post my installation, which includes setting up JupyterLab and also creating virtual environments. I am hoping that even an absolute beginner will be able to follow these instructions, and go from zero to JupyterLab pro.

### Setting up JupyterLab with virtual environments on Windows 10

Go to the Ananaconda website for the Windows distribution and download the Python 3.8 installer:

NB: If you are one of those few still working with Python 2.7 (I was one until last fall), worry not, I will show you how to create a Python 2.7 virtual environment without much effort.

#### Step 2 – Install Anaconda

Follow the official installation instructions to the letter, with the exception of step 8. Here I would suggest especially if you want the ability to start JupyterLab from the command prompt, the alternative setting:

NB: I realize this is discouraged because it may cause interference with other software down the road, but I’ve found no issue yet (not a guarantee, of course, so do at your own peril), and it is much easier than having to add the path manually.

#### Step 3 – Set Chrome as web browser for JupyterLab

I’ve never been able to make JupyterLab work with Internet Explorer, so this is not an optional step for me. To set Chrome as the browser for JupyterLab, open the config file `jupyter_notebook_config.py` (located in your home directory, in `~/.jupyter`), find the browser section:

then replace the last line, `c.NotebookApp.browser = ''` , with:

`c.NotebookApp.browser = '"C:/path/to/your/chrome.exe" %s'` for example:

`‘”C:\Program Files\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe” %s’`

N.B. For mac users, use this:

``c.NotebookApp.browser = 'open -a /Applications/Google\ Chrome.app %s'``

If the config file is not present in the home directory, it can be created at the prompt with the command:

``jupyter notebook --generate-config``

In Windows, this will create the file at this location:

`C:\Users\yourusername\.jupyter\jupyter_notebook_config.py`

#### Step 4 – Install nb_condas_kernels

The package nb_conda_kernels will later detect all conda environments that have notebook kernels and automatically registers them. As a result, all those environments will be visible and can be used directly from the JupyterLab interface. So:

a) check if `nb_conda_kernels` is installed by executing `conda list` at the prompt.

b) If you do not see it in the list of packages, then execute `conda install -c anaconda nb_conda_kernels`

#### Step 5 – Edit the Conda configuration file to create environments with default packages

To automatically install specific packages every time a new environment is created, add the package list to the create_default_packages section of the`.condarc` configuration file, which is located in the home directory. For example, in Windows, this would be:

`C:\Users\yourusername\.condarc`

If the `.condarc` configuration file is not present, you can:

• generate one using`conda config`, for example with:
``conda config --add channels conda-forge``

then edit it. The syntax for the file is the same used in environment files; here’s an example:

NB:  `ipykernel` is necessary if `nb_conda_kernels` is to detect the environments.

If you’d prefer to install each package individually, you can install `ipykernel` with:

`conda install ipykernel`

#### Step 6 – Create the desired environments

To create both Python 3.6 and a Python 2.7 environments, for example, execute at the prompt the two commands below:

` conda create -n py37 python=3.7`

`conda create -n py27 python=2.7`

#### Step 7 – Start JupyterLab

At the prompt, execute the command:

`Jupyter lab`

This will open the JupyterLab Interface automatically in Chrome. From there you can select File>New>Notebook and you will be prompted to select a Kernel as below, where you see that both environments just created are available:

#### Step 8 – Have fun

You are all set to work with the Notebooks in JupyterLab.

PS: To ensure the packages defined in the Conda configuration file were included in both environments, I run this example from the Seaborn tutorial:

# Geoscience Machine Learning bits and bobs – data inspection

If you have not read Geoscience Machine Learning bits and bobs – introduction, please do so first as I go through the objective and outline of this series, as well as a review of the dataset I will be using, which is from the  2016 SEG Machine LEarning contest.

#### *** September 2020 UPDATE ***

Although I have more limited time now, compared to 2016,  I am very excited to be participating in the 2020 FORCE Machine Predicted Lithology challenge. Most new work and blog posts will be about this new contest instead of the 2016 one.

#### ***************************

OK, let’s begin!

With each post, I will add a new notebook to the GitHub repo here. The notebook that goes with this post is  called 01 – Data inspection.

#### Data inspection

The first step after loading the dataset is to create a Pandas DataFrame. With the `describe` method I get a lot of information for free:

Indeed, from the the first row in the summary I learn that about 20% of samples in the photoelectric effect column PE are missing.

I can use `pandas.isnull` to tell me, for each well, if a column has any null values, and `sum` to get the number of null values missing, again for each column.

```for well in training_data['Well Name'].unique():
print(well)
w = training_data.loc[training_data['Well Name'] == well]
print (w.isnull().values.any())
print (w.isnull().sum(), '\n')
```

Simple and quick, the output tells met, for example, that the well ALEXANDER D is missing 466 PE samples, and Recruit F9 is missing 12.

However,  the printout is neither easy, nor pleasant to read, as it is a long list like this:

```SHRIMPLIN
False
Facies       0
Formation    0
Well Name    0
Depth        0
GR           0
ILD_log10    0
DeltaPHI     0
PHIND        0
PE           0
NM_M         0
RELPOS       0
dtype: int64

ALEXANDER D
True
Facies         0
Formation      0
Well Name      0
Depth          0
GR             0
ILD_log10      0
DeltaPHI       0
PHIND          0
PE           466
NM_M           0
RELPOS         0
dtype: int64

Recruit F9
True
Facies        0
Formation     0
Well Name     0
Depth         0
GR            0
ILD_log10     0
DeltaPHI      0
PHIND         0
PE           12
NM_M          0
RELPOS        0
dtype: int64
...
...
```

From those I can see that, apart from the issues with the PE log, GR has some high values in SHRIMPLIN, and so on…

All of the above is critical to determine the data imputation strategy, which is the topic of one of the next posts; but first in the next post I will use a number of visualizations of  the data, to examine its distribution by well and by facies, and to explore relationships among variables.

# Geoscience Machine Learning bits and bobs – introduction

#### Bits and what?

After wetting (hopefully) your appetite with the Machine Learning quiz / teaser I am now moving on to a series of posts that I decided to title “Geoscience Machine Learning bits and bobs”.

OK, BUT fist of all, what does ‘bits and bobs‘ mean? It is a (mostly) British English expression that means “a lot of small things”.

Is it a commonly used expression? If you are curious enough you can read this post about it on the Not one-off British-isms blog. Or you can just look at the two Google Ngram plots below: the first is my updated version of the one in the post, comparing the usage of the expression in British vs. US English; the second is a comparison of its British English to that of the more familiar “bits and pieces” (not exactly the same according to the author of the blog, but the Cambridge Dictionary seems to contradict the claim).

I’ve chosen this title because I wanted to distill, in one spot, some of the best collective bits of Machine Learning that came out during, and in the wake of the 2016 SEG Machine Learning contest, including:

• The best methods and insights from the submissions, particularly the top 4 teams
• Things that I learned myself, during and after the contest
• Things that I learned from blog posts and papers published after the contest

I will touch on a lot of topics but I hope that – in spite of the title’s pointing to a random assortment of things –  what I will have created in the end is a cohesive blog narrative and a complete, mature Machine Learning pipeline in a Python notebook.

#### *** September 2020 UPDATE ***

Although I have more limited time these days, compared to 2016,  I am very excited to be participating in the 2020 FORCE Machine Predicted Lithology challenge. Most new work and blog posts will be about this new contest instead of the 2016 one.

#### Some background on the 2016 ML contest

The goal of the SEG contest was for teams to train a machine learning algorithm to predict rock facies from well log data. Below is the (slightly modified) description of the data form the original notebook by Brendon Hall:

The data is originally from a class exercise from The University of Kansas on Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems. This exercise is based on a consortium project to use machine learning techniques to create a reservoir model of the largest gas fields in North America, the Hugoton and Panoma Fields. For more info on the origin of the data, see Bohling and Dubois (2003) and Dubois et al. (2007).

This dataset is from nine wells (with 4149 examples), consisting of a set of seven predictor variables and a rock facies (class) for each example vector and validation (test) data (830 examples from two wells) having the same seven predictor variables in the feature vector. Facies are based on examination of cores from nine wells taken vertically at half-foot intervals. Predictor variables include five from wireline log measurements and two geologic constraining variables that are derived from geologic knowledge. These are essentially continuous variables sampled at a half-foot sample rate.

The seven predictor variables are:

The nine discrete facies (classes of rocks) are:

#### Tentative topics for this series

• List of previous works (in this post)
• Data inspection
• Data visualization
• Data sufficiency
• Data imputation
• Feature augmentation
• Model training and evaluation
• Connecting the bits: a full pipeline

#### List of previous works (comprehensive, to the best of my knowledge)

In each post I will make a point to explicitly reference whether a particular bit (or a bob) comes from a submitted notebook by a team, a previously unpublished notebook of mine, a blog post, or a paper.

However, I’ve also compiled below a list of all the published works, for those that may be interested.

The Github repo with all teams’ submissions.

Two blog posts by Matt Hall of Agile Scientific, here and here

The published summary of the contest by Brendon Hall and Matt Hall on The Leading Edge

An SEG extended abstract on using gradient boosting on the contest dataset

An arXiv e-print paper on using a ConvNet on the contest dataset

Abstract for a talk at the 2019 CSEG / CSPG Calgary Geoconvention